Mauryan Empire | Mauryan art and architecture | UPSC

Mauryan Empire

The mauryan Empire starts a new era in the Indian history. For the fist time politicle unity was achieved in India. Mauryan empire founded by Chandragut Maurya, the mauryan empire was an important dynasty in our history.

Who was the founder of Mauryan Dynasty

Chandragut Maurya was the founder of Mauryan dynasty. Chandragut maurya captured Patilputra from the last ruler of the Nanda Dynasty Dhananada in the age of 25. In this task Chandragut was assisted by Kautilya. Kautilya also known as Chanakya or Vishnugupt.

Importnt Rulers of the Mauryan Empire

1. Chandragut Maurya 322 – 298 B.C.
2. Bindusara 298 – 273 B.C.
3. Ashoka The Great 273 – 232 B.C.

Mauryan Administration – Mauryan Administration was highly centralised. The Emperor was the superem power and source of all authority. The Emperor was assisted by the council of ministers. It was called Mantriparishad.

1. Central Government – Kautilya the famous politicle theorist of ancient India, Supported the monaarchial form of government. He assists that the king should take the advice of his ministry in running the administration. Therefore a council of ministers. It consisted of purohita, mahamantri, senapati and yuraja.
There were civil servents called Amatyas to handle the day to day administration. The officers were similer like today’s IAS Officers. The selection method of Amatyas was elaborated by the kautilya. That’s why the Mauryan empire was well organized in civil services.

2. Revenue Department – Samharta was the cheif of revenue department. It was the in charge of the collection of the all revenue of empire. Revenues come from land, irrigation, shop tax, mines and pastures, license fee from craftmen, and fine collected in the law court.

The main expediture of the state related to king and his household, army, government servents, public workers, poor reliefs and religios.

3. Provincial and local Administration – The mauryan empire was divided into 4 provinces with their capitals at Taxila, Suvarnagiri, Ujjain and the 4th is kallinga. They were respomsible for maintain law and order, and also respomsible for tax collection.

The District Administration was under the charge of Rajukas. The Rajukas power and functions similer to presents collector. He was assisted by the Yuktas.

The village administration was in hand of gramani. The village official superem was called Gopa. Gopa was incharge of 10-15 villages.

Art and Architecture of Mauryan Empire

use of stone started from the Ashoka’s time. the famous stupa of Ashoka’s period is Sanchi Stupa.

the mauryan period artistic is :-

Pillars – the pillers created by Ashoka furnish the finest spicemen of the mauryan art. The Ashokan pillers with inscriptions were found in Delhi, Prayagraj(before few years – Allahabad), Rummindai, Sarnath and Sanchi. Their tops were crowned with Animals figure like Lion, elephant and bull.

The sarnath piller with 4 lions back to back is the most spectacular. The Indian Government adopted this capital.
the Indian National Emblem has been adopted from the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath. it consist of 4 lions back to back, mounted on a abacus with a frieze carrying sculpture in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion, seperated by a intervening wheel over a louts.

Stupa – Ashoka builts a numbers of stupa during his empire but many stupas were destroyed by foreign invaders. One of the very famous stupa ia sanchi stupa. It was originally builds with brics.

Caves– The caves presented to the Ajivikas by Ashoka and his son dasarath. It is a important haritage of mauryan culture. the caves at Barabar hills near Bodh gaya are wonderfull pieces of the Mauryan Architecture.

Some frequently asked questions

capital of mauryan empire?

The Mauryan empire was divided in to four provinces, with the Emperial capital Patilputra. Near Ganga River now in Bihar.

who was the founder of mauryan dynasty?

Chandragut Maurya was the founder of Mauryan dynasty.

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