Pre-Historic Period in India | UPSC | TheQuizPro

The History of human settlements in india in the past. No written records available for the pre historic period. But archaeology dept. found different parts of india to reconstruct the history of this period. that time they were used stone tools, pottery. The development of archaeology helps much to understand the life and culture of the people, who lived in this period.

In India, the pre-historic period is divided in to four period

  • Paleolithic(Old Stone Age)
  • Mesolithic(Middle Stone Age)
  • Neolithic(New Stone Age)
  • The Metal Age

The radio-carbon dating technique is commonly used to find the period of pre-historic period. It is based on the loss carbon in organic materials over a period of time. Another dating method is known as Dendro-Chronology.

Paleolithic or Old Stone Age :

The Period before 10,000 B.C. is assigned to The Old Stone Age. The Old Stone Age sites are widely found in various parts of the Indian Subcontinent. These sites are mostly located near water resources. They aslo lived in huts made by leaves, but rarely. Some of the famous sites of Paleolithic Age in india are :

  • The Soan valley and potwar Plateau on the northwest India
  • The Siwalik Hills, North India
  • Bhimpetka, Madhya Pradesh
  • Adamgarh hills in Narmada Valley
  • Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh
  • Attirampakkam, near Chennai, Tamil nadu

Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age

The Period from 10,000 B.C. to 6000 B.C. is assigned to The Middle Stone Age. It was the transitional phase between The Paleolthic Age and The Neolithic Age. The paintings and engravings found at the rock shelters given the idea about social life and economic activities of Mesolithic period. They Used tiny stone tools often not more than 5 cm. in size. For this reason its known as Microlithis also. They started Domestication of Animal and Cultivation. Animal bones are found in these sites include Dog, Deer, Boar and Ostrich.
Some of the famous sites of Mesolithic Age in india are :

S.No.SiteLocation
1Gauri GundamAndhra Pradesh
2LanghnajGujrat
3Tilwara
Bagor
Rajasthan
4Patne
Hatkhambe
Maharashtra
5Damdama
Chopani Mando
Uttar Pradesh
6Panchmarhi
Bhimbetka
Madhya Pradesh
7SanganakalluKarnatka

Neolithic or New Stone Age

The Neolithic period approximately dated from 6000 B.C. to 4000 B.C. The Neolithic sites are found in various parts of India. The main characteristic of the Neolithic culture are the practice of the Agriculture, Domestication of Animals, Polishing of Stone Tols and manufacturing of pottery.

There was a great improvement in technology of making tools and equipments. Stone tools now were polished. The axes were found an effective tools for hunting and cutting trees. The build mud bricks houses insted of grass huts. They used pottery for cooking and storage of food grains. They were improved in Agriculture and produce wheat , barley, rice, millet. Rice cultivation was extensive in eastern India. They Used cattle for cultivation and transportation. People used clothes made of cotton.
Some of the famous sites of Neolithic age in india are :

S.No.SiteLocation
1BurZahom
Gufkaral
Kashmir
2Chopani
Mahagaraha
Uttar Pradesh
3ChecharBihar
4PoyampalliTamil Nadu
5Bramhagiri
Tekkalkota
Hallur
Narsipur
Sanganakallu
Kupgal
Kodekal
Karnatka
6Utnur
Piklihal
Andhra Pradesh

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